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Management of protein energy malnutrition PDF

  1. management tips are recommended for prevention of Protein Energy Malnutrition as following: Energy: Energy is important to cure PEM that is supplied to the body by carbohydrates mainly. A diet providing sufficient quantities of calories made of Cereals & Starchy Foods like- Oats, Rice, Wheat Flour etc. should be included as they are main.
  2. This manual is based on The treatment and management of severe protein-energy malnutrition, which was published by WHO in 1981. Since then, many advances have been made in the treatment of severe malnutrition. An improved oral rehydration salts (ORS) solution has been developed for the treatment of dehydration. Advances i
  3. SEVERE ACUTE MALNUTRITION • Severe Acute malnutrition is defined as the presence of severe wasting - Weight for height/length <‐3SD and or - MUAC <11.5 cm for children 6‐59 months and or - Presence of bilateral edema • Children with severe acute malnutrition hav
  4. 3. How common is the problem of protein energy malnutrition? a) Severe forms of malnutrition are frequent in the order of 5-10% in developing countries b) The prevalence of mild and moderate forms Protein energy Malnutrition range from 20-40% c) Stunting is the more common form of malnutrition than wastin
  5. Protein energy malnutrition (PEM) is a common problem worldwide and occurs in both developing and industrialized nations. In the developing world, it is frequently a result of socioeconomic.
  6. Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) Pathophysiology Adaptation and Management A preview of the PDF is not available. etiology and management of severe protein energy malnutrition . View full.
  7. Protein-energy malnutrition is a nutritional deficiency resulting from either inadequate energy (caloric) or protein intake and manifesting in either marasmus or kwashiokor. Marasmus is characterised by wasting of body tissues, particularly muscles and subcutaneous fat, and is usually a result of severe restrictions in energy intake

This document is an update of existing guideline for the management of severe malnutrition written by Professor Michael Golden and Dr Yvonne Grellety (Endorsed by 1 The term protein-energy malnutrition is no longer used as it is not thought that protein or energy deficiency, per se, are the usual causes of severe acute malnutrition.. In discussing that protein-energy malnutrition is highly prevalent among peritoneal dialysis patients, Chung et al noted that although nutritional status assessments had improved over the decade from 1997 to 2007, no definitive single test was available to assess nutritional status. [] Instead, they proposed that several different markers of nutrition must be used to understand nutritional status PREVALENCE:• Protein-energy malnutrition is a basic lack of food (from famine) and a major cause of infant mortality and morbidity worldwide.•. Protein-energy malnutrition caused 0.46% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average of 42 deaths per million people per year. St.Anns Degree College for Women. 13

PATTERN OF PROTEIN-ENERGY MALNUTRITION IN SUDANESE CHILDREN AND COMPARISON WITH SOME OTHER MIDDLE EAST COUNTRIES By HASSANO. OMER ABBs (Kh.), MRC.P(LONDON) (D.CR.LONDON) M.I.A. Orner 0.0. Khalifa MBRS(Kh, MRCP,(UK), DCH(LONDON) Department ofPaediatrics andChild Health, Faculty ofMedicine, University ofKhartoum, Khartoum, Sudan. SUMMARY Protein-energy malnutrition is a very common problem occurring in several infants and young children living in developing nations. Protein-energy malnutrition can be easily controlled and reversed with the right guidance and knowledge. Know the causes, symptoms, treatment, prevention and the diet plan for protein-energy malnutrition

will suffer from hunger or malnutrition. Malnutrition takes a variety of forms. The main types of malnutrition seen in Nepal are protein-energy malnutrition, iodine deficiency disorders, iron deficiency anemia and vitamin A deficiency2. In particular malnutrition places an enormous burden on children and women. Even mildly o The risk of having protein energy malnutrition (PEM) in children with CMPA has been well documented. In 2007, the World Health Organisation published guidelines on the dietary management of PEM, which has impacted on the recommendations and composition on specialist feeds for many chronic diseases, but not on CMPA With protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) being implicated in about 60% of all child deaths, the republishing of this book by John Waterlow is timely and necessary. Because the evidence indicates that most malnourished children die because of poor pediatric care by inappropriately trained medical staff, the new cover design depicting the 10. an increase in malnutrition prevalence, which would lead to excess mortality during the recov- Recognition and Management of Malnutrition 8 Daniel Martinez-Garcia MD Laurent Hiffler,MD Teresa M. Kemmer, PhD, RD main clinical findings of protein-energy malnutrition and those indicating severe malnutrition. l 9789240022270-eng.pdf (‎812.3Kb)‎ Microbial safety of lipid-based ready-to-use foods for management of moderate acute malnutrition and severe acute malnutrition: second report  The Treatment and management of severe protein-energy malnutrition

Apexa G. Vyas: A Review On Role Of Digestive Component i.e. Agni In The Management Of PEM (Protein-Energy Malnutrition) In Children IAMJ: JUNE, 2017 2059 Children stand for 27.71% of total population in India1. At present in India 48% children < 5 years age are chronically malnourished and 43% are underweight (NFHS-3). More tha Abstract P4. Although there is encouraging evidence of progress in reducing the prevalence of acute protein-energy malnutrition (PEM), this condition still affects millions of children around the world Acute edematous protein-energy malnutrition is a potentially life-threatening condition, which in the most severe form is frequently associated with multiple organ failure Federal Bureau of Prisons Medical Management of Malnutrition (Undernutrition) Clinical Guidance September 2014 2 FIGURE 1.ETIOLOGY-BASED MALNUTRITION DEFINITIONS * Other chronic diseases or conditions that can result in malnutrition: Cardiovascular disease, cancer, celiac disease, chronic pancreatitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, cystic fibrosis, dementia. Protein-Energy Malnutrition. Protein energy malnutrition (PEM) is defined as an unintentional loss of 10% or more of body weight in a period of six months or less and/or serum albumin levels of less than 3.5 grams per decilitre (g/dl) (Hudson et al., 2000). From: Modifying Food Texture, 2015

Specific recommendations are made to improve case-management, focusing particularly on the prevention of deaths in the first few days after admission. Introduction Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is still very com- mon in Nigeria, and in 1980-1991 36% of children aged 0-4 years were reported to be moderately underweight and 12% severely so The principles of management change to include feeding to appetite, stimulating emotional and physical development and preparing for home. At this stage, the feed is changed to F-100 which provides 100 kcal (420kJ) per 100ml, with 12% energy from protein and 53% from fat. Like F-75, it also provides extra minerals and vitamins but not iron Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM), sometimes called protein-energy undernutrition (PEU), is a form of malnutrition that is defined as a range of conditions arising from coincident lack of dietary protein and/or energy in varying proportions.The condition has mild, moderate, and severe degrees

Why Is Protein Energy Malnutrition More Common In Children

Liver cirrhosis (LC) patients often have protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) and decreased physical activity. These conditions often lead to sarcopenia, which is the loss of skeletal muscle volume and increased muscle weakness. Recent studies have demonstrated that PEM and sarcopenia are predictors fo the medical record and for coders to be aware of malnutrition as a potential diagnosis (ICD-10-CM codes E44.0, E44.1 and E46). The most severe malnutrition problems are associated with protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM), also known as protein-energy malnutrition or protein calorie undernutrition, which occurs in both chronic and acute forms Addressing Sarcopenia and Protein-Energy Malnutrition Through Dietary Management Liz Friedrich, MPH, RDN, CSG, LDN, FAND June 27, 2017 4 Objectives 5 •State the criteria used to identify protein-energy malnutrition •Define sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity •Understand protein needs for healthy older adults and older adults with diagnose DOI: 10.1533/9780857093905.292 Corpus ID: 71079052. Prevention and management of protein energy malnutrition @inproceedings{Ramji2011PreventionAM, title={Prevention and management of protein energy malnutrition}, author={S. Ramji}, year={2011}

E43 Unspecified severe protein energy malnutrition • In adults, BMI < 18.5 kg/m2 or unintentional loss of weight (≥10%) with evidence of suboptimal intake resulting in severe loss of subcutaneous fat and/or severe muscle wasting. E44 Protein-energy malnutrition of moderate and mild degre Protein Energy Malnutrition. Dr. Dipesh Tamrakar MBBS MD Community Medicine and Tropical Diseases Department of Community Medicine KUSMS Introduction • Protein energy malnutrition (PEM) is a type of malnutrition resulting from deficiency of proteins and calories in the food over a long period of time. • It is very common among young children, who are in the stage of rapid growth and.

(PDF) Protein Energy Malnutrition - ResearchGat

(PDF) Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) Pathophysiology

Protein-Energy Malnutrition Treatment & Management

  1. with appropriate management. Definitions Malnutrition: A deficiency or excess (or imbalance) of energy, protein and other nutrients, which causes measurable adverse effects on tissue/ body form (shape, size, composition), function and clinical outcome. Can encompass both overnutrition and undernutrition, but often used to refer to.
  2. Protein Energy Malnutrition is a form of Malnutrition, an energy deficit caused by deficiency of macro and micronutrients. Protein Energy Malnutrition can be primary, which is caused by an inadequate nutrient intake or secondary resulting from disorders or drugs which affect the use of nutrients in the body
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  4. Levels in Different Grades of Protein Energy Malnutrition Chowdhury MSI 1, Akhter N 2, Haque M 3, Aziz R 4, Nahar N 5 The present study has been designed to estimate serum total protein and albu

Estimate of energy and protein requirements in obesity. E nergy - measurement of energy requirements should be ideally based on accurate measurements of energy expenditure (EE), including both its basal and activity-related components [].This implies the use of indirect calorimetry as gold standard for basal EE [] while accurate recording of activity EE is difficult, particularly in outpatient. Protein-Energy-Malnutrition does not occur in children only, adults too can get it. Let us now discuss PEM in adults. Although the term adult kwashiorkor has been used in some publications, it is probably better to reserve the word kwashiorkor for the disease in children, and use adult malnutrition Sir.—In our institution as in The Children's Memorial Hospital in Chicago, the use of the term nonorganic failure to thrive obscures the fact that treatable protein-energy malnutrition is a common disorder. We support Listernick and his colleagues 1 in their contention that this term should be discarded.. All children who receive even the most rudimentary health care should be properly.

undernutrition and overweight/obesity. When the word 'malnutrition' is used in this section, we are referring to 'undernutrition' caused by a lack of protein and or energy (1). Malnutrition is characterised by a deficiency of energy, protein, vitamins, minerals or other micronutrients that cause measurable adverse effects on the body Malnutrition in children Uncontrolled Urbanization Availability Of health facility Poor living conditions in urban slums Lack of political Commit-ment Social & Political Discrimi-nation Low birth weight Inadequate energy intake Recurrent infections/ Decrease immunity Worm infestation Poverty & Illiteracy Large family size/ no contraception us May 8th, 2019 - Protein energy Malnutrition PEM also known as protein calorie malnutrition is one such disorder caused due to severe deficiency of protein It is a body depletion disorder Causes PEM is divided into four types viz primary secondary Kwashiorkor and Marasmus In simplest terms it can be explained as a condition that occurs when th Secondary protein-energy malnutrition. Description: A form of. PEM. caused by illnesses affecting appetite, digestion, absorption, metabolism, and/or increased energy/protein demand rather than a lack of calorie intake. Epidemiology. : usually observed in. Chronically ill, hospitalized patients

Protein Energy Malnutrition - SlideShar

Protein-Energy MalnutritionCausesSymptomsTreatment

Fig. 2. Kwashiorkor with edema and abdominal distension. Courtesy of Tom D. Thacher, MD, Rochester, MN. - Protein energy malnutrition Most children with mild malnutrition respond to increased oral caloric intake and supplementation with vitamin, iron, and folate supplements. The requirement for increased protein is met typically by increasing the food intake, which, in turn, increases both protein and caloric intake. Adequacy of intake is determined by monitoring weight gain Introduction. Protein energy wasting (PEW) is a state of decreased body stores of protein and energy fuels, and is associated with diminished functional capacity, impaired quality of life, and increased morbidity and mortality in patients with CKD ().The prevalence of PEW ranges from 30% to 70% among patients on maintenance hemodialysis Generally, malnutrition impairs performance, health and survival of human . Inadequate dietary intake of protein resulted in the form of malnutrition called protein energy malnutrition (PEM) . The PEM is a major health problem in developing countries and a major risk factor of morbidity and mortality of children 10.2217/NMT.11.69 Neurodegen. Dis. Manage. (2012) 2(1), 33-43 ISSN 1758-2024 33 SUMMARY The delivery of good nutritional care is a fundamental element of the management of individuals with Huntington's disease and all patients with Huntington'

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Practical dietary management of protein energy

Protein-energy malnutrition is a major public health problem worldwide, particularly in developing countries. This work aims to determine the cultural and socio-economic risk factors of protein-energy malnutrition in children, from 0 to 59 months, attending the General Hospital of Bingerville (Côte d'Ivoire) - Protein energy malnutrition - Iodine deficiency (One indicator for each of the disorder) (j) Define nutrition surveillance. 2 2. (a) Explain the concept of health care and the 2+3 three different levels at which it is available to the community. (b) Justify the statement that 'Multi sectoral 5 approach helps to solve nutritional problems' The effect of a traditional low-fat diet on energy and protein intake, serum albumin concentration and body-weight in Ugandan preschool children. British Journal of Nutrition 29 , 261 - 268 . CrossRef Google Scholar PubMe Severe acute malnutrition (SAM), defined as severe wasting [weight-for-height Z score <−3 based on World Health Organization (WHO) reference standard] and/or the presence of nutritional oedema, is a life-threatening condition which needs urgent attention and appropriate management to reduce mortality and promote recovery

Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet which does not supply a healthy amount of one or more nutrients.This includes diets that have too little nutrients or so many that the diet causes health problems. The nutrients involved can include calories, protein, carbohydrates, fat, vitamins or minerals. A lack of nutrients is called undernutrition or undernourishment while a. Marasmus is a severe form of protein-energy malnutrition that results when a person does not consume enough protein and calories.Without these vital nutrients, energy levels become dangerously low.

Protein-Energy Malnutrition The American Journal of

PROTEIN ENERGY. MALNUTRITION(PEM) DR THOMAS B. NYAMBO DEPARTMENT OF BIOCHEMISTRY SCHOOL OF MEDICINE MUCHS 3 November 2004 Protein energy malnutrition(PEM) OBJECTIVES: 1. Describe proteinenergy malnutrition (PEM) and discuss the concepts of marasmus and kwashiorkor. 2. Describe the pathogenesis of the syndrome of P.E.M. 3. Describe the complications associated with proteinenergy malnutrition clinical, and economic outcomes including; improved weight, hand grip strength, energy and protein intakes and reduced hospital admissions, readmissions and complications 4 - 11 • NICE CG32 (Nutrition Support) has shown substantial cost savings can result from identifying and treating malnutrition 4. Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is classically described as 1 of 2 syndromes, marasmus and kwashiorkor, depending on the presence or absence of edema. Each type may be classified as acute or chronic. Additionally, marasmus can precede kwashiorkor. Many patients exhibit symptoms of both disease states. Marasmus, or PEM without edema, is. Treatment of protein energy malnutrition: Treatment of protein energy malnutrition (PEM) is divided into 3 phases: 1. Initial treatment / resuscitation (For one week) 2. Rehabilitation (For 2 - 6 weeks) 3. Follow up (Upto 3 years). 1. Initial treatment: The objectives are as follows: * To treat or prevent hypoglycemia * To treat or prevent. BDA consensus on the nutritional management of Parkinson's Introduction People living with Parkinson's are particularly susceptible to weight loss and malnutrition. Involuntary movements associated with Parkinson's result in increased energy expenditure, while disease symptoms and medication side effects can limit food intake

Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) is defined as a range of pathological conditions arising from coincident lack of varying proportions of protein and calorie. Effects of protein deficiency Diseases due to the deficiency of proteins and calories occur commonly among weaned infants and pre-school children in India and other developing countries Protein malnutrition / protein energy malnutrition Protein malnutrition can occur for a number of reasons including poor dietary choice, an over tight gastric band, anastomotic stricture or protein malabsorption. It may present several years following surgery. Protein energy malnutrition is accompanied by oedema The positive impact of nutritional status on the health and treatment adequacy of peritoneal dialyzed patients has been well established. Protein intake is an important factor used to stratify malnutrition, with inadequate intake leading to protein-energy wasting during the course of therapy. In this review, we discuss the recommendations made by nephrological societies regarding nutrition in. · Increase protein starting at a minimum of 20-25% > current dose unless already maximized. Consider Nitrogen Balance study to assess protein adequacy. See Special Considerations. · Consider specialized protein supplement · Check serum vitamin C and zinc levels and start empiric supplementation as outlined below while awaiting levels some degree of chronic protein energy malnutrition. We concluded that the child with protein energy malnutrition was wasting from lack of food and living partially on its own tissues [16]. The latter supplied a balance of energy and protein of good quality, so signs of protein deficiency did not develop. At first

KWASHIORKOR FISIOPATOLOGIA PDF

WHO guideline on the dairy protein content in ready-to-use

The definition of malnutrition used here is 'a state of nutrition in which a deficiency of energy, protein and other The expenditure on treatments and strategies to identify and manage malnutrition is a very small proportion of the overall costs of malnutrition (<2.5%) protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) because kwashiorkor- like malnutrition and marasmus frequently coexist (3, 4). The prevalence and severity of PEM are related to the clinical stage of chronic liver disease: When diagnosed by anthropometric criteria, PEM may be present in 20%. MALNUTRITION . 2.1. Disorders of Protein Metabolism . Almost all CKD patients, including diet-induced obesity- related CKD, are gradually affected by low protein and energy intake due to restrictive dietary prescriptions, poor appetite, and uremia-related anorexia. This protein energy malnutrition or protein energy wasting, classi Protein energy wasting (PEW) is common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is associated with adverse clinical outcomes, especially in individuals receiving maintenance dialysis therapy. A multitude of factors can affect the nutritional and metabolic status of CKD patients requiring a combination of therapeutic maneuvers to prevent or reverse protein and energy depletion and treat protein-energy wasting, mineral and electrolyte disorders, and other metabolic co- morbidities associated with CKD. Overview of the guideline development process: Guideline development is a detailed an

Management of Protein-energy Malnutrition - an Update

The treatment, which consists of three well-defined phases, is described in Chapter 5. The reader is also referred to the WHO publication Management of severe malnutrition: a manual for physicians and other senior health workers. 1 1 Management of severe malnutrition: a manual for physicians and other senior health workers Protein energy malnutrition (PEM) is a common problem worldwide and occurs in both developing and industrialized nations. In the developing world, it is frequently a result of socioeconomic, political, or environmental factors. In contrast, protein energy malnutrition in the developed world usually occurs in the context of chronic disease

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protein energy malnutrition mcq all articles about, protein energy malnutrition the american journal of, pdf protein energy malnutrition researchgate, problems related to malnutrition mcqs quiz questions, protein energy malnutrition encyclopedia com, biochemical change assoociate wit About 40% of patients undergoing maintenance dialysis suffer from varying degrees of protein-energy malnutrition. This is a problem of substantial importance because many measures of nutritional status correlate with the risk of morbidity and mortality. There are many causes of protein-energy malnutrition in maintenance dialysis patients. Evidence indicates that nutritional decline begins even.

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Protein-Energy Malnutrition - an overview ScienceDirect

2. Protein-energy malnutrition : definition, epidemiology Protein-energy malnutrition is caused by an imbalance between intake and the body's requirements. This imbalance causes tissue loss, in particular of muscle tissue, with harmful functional consequences. In the elderly, malnutrition causes or worsens a state of frailty and/o Malnutrition and a loss of muscle mass are frequent in cancer patients and have a negative effect on CRP C-reactive protein d day DEXA dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry DHA 22:6 docosahexaenoic acid and patients on the most appropriate and effective management of nutritional and metabolic problems in cancer patients; and, bythis,. It is a form of malnutrition caused by a lack of protein in the diet. People who have kwashiorkor typically have an extremely emaciated appearance in all body parts except their ankles, feet, and. The Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) level was measured in the 11-19 age groups of girls. The prevalence of PEM was found to be increased with increase in the age group of girls [Table 1] . Family size (mean value) in the study group was found to be five to seven members

Management of protein-energy malnutrition in Nigeria: an

Malnutrition refers to getting too little or too much of certain nutrients. This article discusses the types, symptoms and causes of malnutrition and provides information about prevention and. Protein-energy malnutrition occurs when too few calories and/or protein are being supplied to the body because of malnutrition, and from acute conditions, such as infection, trauma, or organ failure, which increase the protein and energy demands of the body Acute malnutrition is a nutritional deficiency resulting from either inadequate energy or protein intake. Children with primary acute malnutrition are common in developing countries as a result of inadequate food supply caused by social, economic, and environmental factors. Secondary acute malnutrition is usually due to an underlying disease causing abnormal nutrient loss, increased energy. In the same cohort, chronic protein-energy malnutrition (deficits in height for age) was found to be severe (5.1%), moderate (7.7%), and mild (14.5%). Acute (33%) and chronic (64%) malnutrition, based on comparing weight and height with controls, was found among a cohort of 160 children hospitalized with congenital heart disease in a regional. Ethiopia sets new standards for the management of acute malnutrition. The new guideline was launched on June 25th, 2019 by Dr Lia Kebede, State Minister of the Federal Ministry of Health, who noted that nutrition is now getting the attention it deserves. We launched the first ever Food and Nutrition Policy in 2018, and today we are gathered here for another very important milestone, to.

Management of malnutrition - SlideShar

Feed intake and dietary digestibility are reduced if dietary crude protein is <6%, further compounding an energy-protein deficiency; thus, for maintenance of mature, healthy animals, the diet should have a minimum of 7% crude protein. Dietary crude protein requirements are higher for growth, gestation, and lactation Nutritional Management of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease . Malnutrition in COPD • Weight loss and low body weight associated with poor prognosis and energy and protein (Vermeeren et al., 1997; Weekes et al, 2009) • Intake is compromised during acut Another Picture of diet plan for protein energy malnutrition: Using IMG shortcode. OR. sponsor Tweet. Pin It. Related Posts. Diet Plan With Garcinia Cambogia Paleo Diet Food List Pdf Fruitarian Diet During Pregnancy Daily Diet Plan To Lose Weight Fast Diet Drinks Like Slim Fast About Author admin. Leave a Reply Cancel reply . Your email address. Factors affecting the prevalence of malnutrition among children under three years of age in Botswana. African Journal of Food Agriculture Nutrition and Development 2006; 6. 3. Phengxay M, Ali M, Yagyu F, Soulivanh P, Kuroiwa C and Ushijima H. Risk factors for protein-energy malnutrition in children under 5 years High risk of malnutrition as defined by a validated malnutrition screening tool Patient reports less than ½ oral intake for H 5 days Stage 3 and 4 pressure injuries automatically rank as probable high risk of delayed healing due to nutritional problems. Energy and protein can be increased through two methods

Protein-energy malnutrition - Wikipedi

1.2 Screening for malnutrition and the risk of malnutrition in hospital and the community. 1.2.1 Screening for malnutrition and the risk of malnutrition should be carried out by healthcare professionals with appropriate skills and training.. 1.2.2 All hospital inpatients on admission and all outpatients at their first clinic appointment should be screened Those with protein energy malnutrition may need to take protein bars or supplements for correction of the deficiency. The Body Mass Index is regularly monitored to check for improvement or. Definitions. Malnutrition: A deficiency or excess (or imbalance) of energy, protein and other nutrients, which causes measurable adverse effects on tissue/body form (shape, size, composition), function and clinical outcome. Can encompass both overnutrition and undernutrition, but often used to refer to undernutrition only. 2 Undernutrition: A clinical syndrome characterised by weight loss. protein-energy malnutrition: Definition Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is a potentially fatal body-depletion disorder. It is the leading cause of death in children in developing countries. Description PEM is also referred to as protein-calorie malnutrition. It develops in children and adults whose consumption of protein and energy (measured.